The total installed capacity of photovoltaic power generation
in China was 28 million 50 thousand kilowatts, and the total generating capacity was 25 billion kwh in 2014. Among them, photovoltaic power stations are 23.38 million kilowatts, and distributed ones are 4.67 million kilowatts. The newly added installed capacity is 10.6 million kilowatts, accounting for about one fifth of the world's newly installed capacity. It has achieved the average annual increase of 10 million kilowatts proposed in Several Opinions of the State Council on Promoting the Healthy Development of the Photovoltaic Industry
. The newly installed capacity in the central and eastern regions reached 5.6 million kilowatts, accounting for 53% of the country's total installed capacity. Among them, 1.52 million kilowatts were added in Jiangsu Province, which was second only to Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. 970 million kilowatts were added in Hebei Province, ranking the forefront of the country. In the western provinces, the newly installed capacity is larger in Inner Mongolia, Qinghai Province, Gansu Province and Ningxia Province.
The new grid connected power stations are mainly driven by large-scale photovoltaic power stations
. In the future, with the continuous innovation of photovoltaic power generation application mode, the distributed scale is expected to grow steadily. According to the plan of the national energy administration, the national photovoltaic annual plan in 2015 will add 15 gigawatts of grid connected capacity, including 8 gigawatts of centralized power stations and 7 gigawatts of distributed power stations, among which the roof distribution is no less than 3.15 gigawatts. In particular, it is proposed that the upper limit of development scale without the occurrence of light abandonment will not be set in Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, Chongqing and Tibet.
1. The land can be saved by the development of water photovoltaic power stations. One of the disadvantages of photovoltaic power stations is energy dispersion and large floor area. A Photovoltaic power station is a permanent land occupation, and large-scale ground photovoltaic power station
needs to occupy a large land area. According to the book named Construction Design and Maintenance of Solar Photovoltaic Power Generation System
, theoretically, every 10 kw photovoltaic power generation system covers an area of 100 square meters, which is equivalent to 10 square meters per kilowatt. However, in order to reduce the shadow effect and the loss of power generation, there is a certain distance between the panels, which further increases the floor area. The average kilowatt of the whole photovoltaic power station covers an area of 20-30 square meters.
2. In North China, evaporation is greater than rainfall, so the evaporation can be reduced by the development of water photovoltaic power stations. In recent 40 years, both precipitation and evaporation in arid and semi-arid areas of China have been decreasing, but the decreasing rate of precipitation is faster than that of evaporation, and the imbalance of water budget has resulted in the increasingly dry climate. The water evaporation can be reduced because the water photovoltaic power stations
cover a number of water surfaces.
3. China has a coastline of 32,000 kilometers, which has a great terrain advantage for the development of water photovoltaic power stations
. China has a sea area of nearly 3 million square kilometers. Its coastline is divided into continental coastline and island coastline, of which the mainland coastline is 18,000 km. It starts from the Yalu River Estuary in the north and ends at Beilun estuary in the south. The development of water photovoltaic power stations along the line not only has low operation difficulty coefficient, but also can provide power support for economically developed areas along the line.
4. China has 86,000 reservoirs (up to the end of 2012), with a total storage capacity of 6924 * 108 cubic meters. The total water surface area of reservoirs in China is 25,619 thousand hectares, that is, 38.429 million mu (as of October 31, 1996), which is the prerequisite for large-scale development of water photovoltaic power stations. The reservoir surface is mainly used for water storage, power generation, irrigation, breeding, landscape tourism and ecological protection. More than 90% of the existing reservoir water surface can be used for aquaculture, and the actual aquaculture area only accounts for 78% of the total available area. The output per unit area is generally low, but the water photovoltaic power station will not affect the development of the aquaculture industry.
5. There are many lakes in China, with a total area of 91,000 square km. There are more than 2,700 lakes with an area of more than 1,000 square meters.
6. The water photovoltaic power station is very environment-friendly. The floating pv mounting system
and other equipment can be recycled 100%, and the solar power generation efficiency is high.
To sum up, China should vigorously develop water photovoltaic power stations to improve economic benefits and maintain healthy and harmonious development of the environment.